Narrator: Listen to a conversation between a student and a university employee.
Student: Hi, I need to pick up the gym pass.
Employee: OK. I’ll need your name, year, and university ID.
Student: Here’s my ID card. And my name is Gina Kent, and I’m first year.
Employee: OK. Gina. I’ll type up the pass for you right away.
Student: Great! This is exciting. I can’t wait to get started.
Employee: Oh, this is a wonderful gym.
Student: That’s what everybody has been saying. Everyone is talking about the new pool, the new indoor course. But what I love is all the classes.
Employee: The classes…?
Student: Yes, like the swimming and tennis classes and everything.
Employee: Oh yeah, but this pass doesn’t entitle you to those.
Student: It doesn’t?
Employee: No, the classes fall into separate category.
Student: But, that’s my whole reason for getting a pass. I mean, I was planning to take a swimming class.
Employee: But that’s not how it works. This pass gives you access to the gym and to all the equipment, into the pool and so forth. But not with team practicing, so you have to check the schedule.
Student: But what do I have to do if I want to take a class?
Employee: You have to: one, register; and two, pay the fee for the class.
Student: But that’s not fair.
Employee: Well, I think if you can think about it. You’ll see that it’s fair.
Student: But people who play sports in the gym… they don’t have to pay anything.
Employee: Yes, but they just come in, and play or swim on their own. But, taking a class—that is a different story, I mean, someone has to pay the instructor.
Student: So, if I want to enroll in a class.
Employee: Then you have to pay extra. The fee isn’t very high, but there’s a fee. So, what class did you say you want to take?
Employee: OK. Swimming classes are thirty dollars a semester.
Student: I guess I could swing that. But I’m still not convinced it’s fair. So, do I pay you?
Employee: Well, first, you need to talk to the instructor. They have to assess your level and steer you into the right class, you know, beginner, intermediate…
Student: You mean, I have to swim for them? Show them what I can do?
Employee: No, no, you just tell them a little bit about your experiences and skills, so they know what level you should be in.
Student: Oh, OK. So, I guess I’ll need an appointment.
Employee: And I can make that for you right now.
And I’ll tell up you about your gym ID card. You’ll need it to get into the building. Now about that appointment… how does Wednesday at three sounds?
Employee: OK. Then you’ll be meeting with Mark Guess. He’s a swimming instructor. He also coaches the swim team. And here, I’ve jotted it all down for you.
Student: Great! Thanks.
Narrator: Listen to a conversation between a student and a Professor.
Student: Hi professor, I guess you want to see me.
Professor: Hi Bill thanks for coming. I want to talk to you about …..
Student: Is there something wrong with my research paper?
Professor: No, not at all, in fact it’s very good. That’s why I want to talk to you.
Student: Oh, thanks
Professor: I think you know that the department is looking to hire a new professor, are you familiar with our hiring process.
Student: No, but what is that got to do with me.
Professor: Well, Bill, we have several qualified applicants for serious about and this part of this interview process
we have to meet with the committee of the professors and students in our department.
They also have to give a talk.
Student: You mean like a lecture?
Professor: Yes, like a sample lecture on one of their academic interests
Student: Oh, see you can see their teaching style
Student: Hah…Make sense
Professor: So I’d like to know if you be willing to join us as the student’s representatives on the interview committee.
It’ll be a good experience for you. You could put it on your resume.
Student: Oh… better looks good for my graduate application, I guess, so, what do I have to do
Professor: The department’s secretary will give you a schedule of the applicant’s thesis
if you are free, we’d like you to attend our talks and then later you can give us your opinion.
Oh and we usually serve lunch and snacks depending on what time the talk is.
Student: Cool, that’s another good reason to do this. Um… when is the next talk?
Professor: We actually haven’t any yet, the first one is next Friday.
It’s 10 AM, then lunch, then the formal discussion with the applicant right after.
Student: Oh well, I’m free on Fridays if all the talks are on Fridays, I will be able to make all of them.
Professor: That’s great, now you should know this job candidate is interested in the lifecycle in the forest.
Student: That’s what my research about.
Professor: Yes, I know that’s why I feel necessary to point out that even though these applicants’ research interests were similar to yours;
we want you to tell us what you think about the teaching of all these applicants. Your perspective is as a student,
how the applicant teaches in the classroom that was important to us.
Student: I understand so how many applicants are there?
Professor: Let’s see, we have 4, all very good candidates, that we will be looking at over the next few weeks. It’s going to be a tough decision.
But it’ll be a good experience for you, especially if you’re going to graduate school.
Student: Thank you. It’ll be cool to do this. I’ll get the copy of the schedule from the secretary on my way out.
Professor: You’re welcome, seeing you in class this afternoon
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a Biology Class. The class has been learning about birds.
Professor: Ok, today we are going to continue our discussion of the parenting behaviors of birds.
And we are going to start by talking about what are known as distraction displays.
Now if you were a bird and there was a predator around.
What are you going to do?
Well, for one thing you are going to try to attract as little attention as possible, right?
Because if the predator doesn’t know you are there, it is not going to try to eat you.
But sometimes certain species of birds do the exact opposite when the predator approaches they do their best to try to attract the attention of that predator.
Now why would they do that? Well, they do that to draw the predator away from their nests, away from their eggs or their young birds.
And the behaviors that the birds engaging in to distract predators are called distraction displays.
And there are a number of different kinds of distraction displays.
Most of the time, when birds are engaging in distraction displace
they are going to be pretending either that they have injury or that they’re ill or that they’re exhausted.
You know something that’ll make the predator thinks Hum… here is an easy meal.
One pretty common distraction display was called the broken wing display.
And in a broken wing display the bird spreads and drags the wings or its tail, and while it does that,
it slowly moves away from the nests so it really looks like a bird with a broken wing.
And these broken wing displays can be pretty convincing.
Another version of this kind of distraction display is where the birds create same impression of a mouse or some other small animals that running along the ground.
A good example of that kind of display is created by a bird called the purple sandpiper.
Now what’s the purple sandpiper does is when a predator approaches,
it drags its wings but not to give it the impression that its wings are broken but to create the illusion that it has a second pair of legs.
And then it raises its feathers, so it looks like it got a coat of fur.
And then it runs along the ground swirling left and right you know like running around a little rocks and sticks.
And as it goes along it makes a little squeezing noises.
So from a distance it really looks and sounds like a little animal running along the ground trying to get away.
Again to the predator, it looks like an easy meal.
Now what’s interesting is the birds have different levels of performance of these distraction displays.
They don’t give their top performance, their primetime performance every time.
What they do is they save their best performances they’re most conspicuous and most risky displays for the time just before the baby birds become able to take care of themselves.
And the time that way because that when that make the greatest investment in parenting their young.
So they are not going to put their best performance just after they laid their eggs because they have to invest that much more time and energy in parenting yet.
The top performance is going to come later.
Now you have some birds that are quiet mature, are quite capable almost as soon as they hatch.
In that case, the parent will put on the most conspicuous distractions displays just before the babies’ hatch because once the babies are hatch they can pretty much take care themselves,
and then you have others birds that helpless when have hatch.
In that case, the parents will save the best performance until just before the babies get their feathers.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in an Architecture Class.
Professor: Today, we are taking a little detour from the grand styles of public architecture we’ve been studying to look at residential architectures in the United States.
Since this is something we can all identify with, I think it will help us see the relationship between the function of a structure and its style or form.
This has been an ongoing theme in our discussion, and we will be getting back to it just a moment.
But before we get started, I want you to take a moment to think: does anyone know what the single most popular style for a house in the United States is today? Bob?
Student 1: “I bet it is the ranch-style house.”
Professor: “Well, in this area, probably. But aren’t we typical? Yes, Sue.”
Student 2: “How about the kind of house my grandparents live in? They call it a Cape Cod.
Professor: That’s the one. Here is a drawing of what we consider of a classic Cape Cod house.
These days, you see this style all over the United States.
But it first showed up in U.S. northeast, in the New England region, around the late1600s.
For those of you who don’t know the northeast costal region, Cape Cod is a peninsula, a narrow strip of land that jets out into the Atlantic,
and so many houses in this particular style were built on Cape Cod, that the name of the place became the name of the style.
Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in the northeast?
Well, one reason is that it’s a great example of form following function.
We’ve talked about this design principle a lot about form following function. And what did we say it’s meant?
Someone give me an application of this principle.
What did this concept that form should follow function? How would it be applied to housing design?
Student 2: Well, if it means the design of the building, it should be based on the needs of people who use it.
Then, well, the architect has to be very practical to think about the people who actually be living in the house or working in the office building, whatever,
so for the architect, it’s all about users not about showing off how creative you can be.
Professor: Good, of course, for a Cape Cod house, it might be even more accurate to say that form also follows climate.
Who knows what the climate like on Cape Cod?
Student 1: Cold in the winter…
Student 2: And whenever I visit my grandparents, it’s really wet.
It’s usually either raining or snowing or foggy and windy, too. I guess because it’s so exposed to the ocean?
Professor: That’s right. So take another look at this drawing, and you can image how this design might be particularly helpful in that kind of climate.
Notice how the house is fairly low to the ground. This relatively low compact structure helps the house withstand the strong winds blowing off the ocean.
And look at the slope of the roof, the steep angle helps keep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the winter.
Another thing, Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of the sun’s warm through the windows.
That’s helpful in winter. Now what can you tell me about the chimney, about its location.
Student 2: Well, it’s in the middle. Because, does that have something to do with heating the houses?
I mean since the heat never has to travel very far.
Student 1: That means you can heat the house more efficiently, right?
Professor: Exactly, now see how the house has very little exterior decoration, that’s also typical of early Cape Cod houses.
The wind was one reason, nothing sticking out might blow away in the harsh weather, but there was probably another reason,
not related to the climate, more reflection of a rural New England society back then,
you see Cape Cod houses were not built in the big cities, where all the rich people lived back then.
These were the modest dwellings the people who built them simply couldn’t afford lots of expensive decorated details.
But that was more than just matter of money. In these rural areas, people depended on each other for survival.
Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the difficult environment, so you didn’t want to appear to be showing off.
You wanted to avoid anything that might set you apart from your neighbors, the same people you might need to help you someday.
So all these help to create an attitude of conformity in the community,
and you can see why a modest, a very plain style would become so widely imitated throughout rural New England.
Student 2: It is plain, but you know it’s nice looking.
Professor: Good point, and in fact it’s precisely that as aesthetic appeal, the…the purity, the nearly perfect proportion of the houses…
that’s another reason for the cape cod enduring popularity even in the places where the climate was so mild, it’s functional design doesn’t matter.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in an environmental science class.
Professor: When land gets develop for human use, the landscape changes.
We don’t see as many types of vegetation, trees, grasses and so forth. This in turn leads to other losses: the loss of animal that once lived there.
Err…but these are the obvious changes, but there are also less obvious changes like the climate.
One interesting case of this…of…of changes in the local land use causing changes in climate, specifically the temperature is in Florida.
Now what comes to mind when you think of the state of Florida?
Student A: Sunshine, beaches.
Student B: Warm weather, oranges…
Professor: Yes, exactly. Florida has long had a great citric industry; large growth of oranges, lemons and the like.
Florida’s winter is very mild; the temperature doesn’t often get below freezing. But there are some areas in Florida that do freeze.
So in the early 1900s, farmers moved even further south in Florida, to areas that were even less likely to freeze.
Obviously, freezing temperatures are danger to the crops. A bad barrier of cold weather, a long spell of frosts could ruin a farm and the entire crop, anyway,
before these citric growers moved south, much of the land in south Florida, was what we called wetlands.
Wetlands are areas of marshy, swampy land, areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil for large part of the year.
Wetlands have their own unique ecosystem, with plants and animals with special an interesting adaptation.
Very exciting, but it’s not what we are talking about today. Emm…where was I?
Student A: Farmers moved south?
Professor: Oh, yes. Farmers moved south. But the land was not suitable for farming.
You can’t grow orange in wetland, so farmers had to transform the wetlands into lands suitable for farming.
To do that, you have to drain the water from the land, move the water elsewhere, and divert to the water sources such as rivers.
Hundreds of miles of drainage canals were built in the wetlands. Now these areas, the new areas the farmers moved to, used to be warm and unlikely to freeze,
however, recently the area has become susceptible to freezes. And we are trying to understand why.
Student B: Is it some global temperature change or weather pattern like El Ni? o or something?
Professor: Well, there are two theories. One idea is as you suggested that major weather patterns, something like El Ni?o, are responsible.
But the other idea and this is the one that I personally subscribe to, is of the changes in the temperature pattern had been brought about by the loss of wetlands.
Student B: Well, how would the loss of wetlands make a difference?
Professor: Well, think about what we’ve been studying so far. We discussed the impact of landscapes on temperature, right?
What affects does the body of water have on an area?
Student A: Oh, yeah. Bodies of water tend to absorb the heat during the day, and then they release the heat at night.
Professor: Yes, exactly. What you just said is what I want you all to understand.
Bodies of water release heat and moisture back into the environment.
So places near large bodies of water are generally milder, err…slightly warmer than those without water.
And what I, another think is that the loss of the wetlands has created the situation where the local temperatures in the area are not slightly different,
slightly colder than they were 100 years ago, before the wetland were drained.
Student B: Emma…do we know what the temperature was like back then?
Professor: Well, we were able to estimate this. We have data about South Florida’s current landscape, emm…the plant cover.
And we were able to reconstruct data about the landscape prior to 1900.
Then we enter those data, information about what the landscape look like before and after the wetlands were drained. We enter the data into a computer weather model.
This model can predict temperatures. And when all the data were entered, an overall cooling trend was predicted by the model.
Student B: How much colder does it get now?
Professor: Well, actually the model shows a drop of only a few degrees Celsius. But this is enough to cause dramatic damage to crops.
If temperatures over night are already very close to the freezing point, then this drop of just a few degrees can take the temperature below freezing.
And freezing causes frosts, which kill crops. These damaging frosts wouldn’t happen if the wetlands were still inexistence,
just as the tiny temperature difference can have major consequences.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a Business Class.
Professor: Let’s get started. Um, last time we were talking about the need for advertising.
Now, let’s look at how you can successfully call attention to the service or product you want to sell.
To succeed, you’ve got to develop a systematic approach. If you don’t come up with a system,
um, a plan, you risk **decisions that waste money, or even drive away potential customers. But what does a systematic advertising plan look like?
Well, it covers what we call — the ‘Four Ms’.
The ‘Four Ms’: Market, Media, Money, Message.
All are important areas to focus on when creating your advertising plan. We will look at them one by one.
The First step is to look at your Market, that’s the people who might become customers, buyers of your service or product.
You need to know all about your possible customers：
Who are they？ What age group are they? What do they like, or dislike? How do they shop? So, you got that?
A market is a group of potential customers.
Next, Media… Obviously the major media are television, radio, newspapers, magazines, um, billboards, and so forth.
There are all avenues of communication.
And you need to figure out: Which media you should advertise through? Which media will reach your intended audience — your market?
So, you do research, trying to determine which media will reach the most potential customers for the lowest cost.
For instance, if you have a product, that we’ll say teachers would like, then teachers are your market.
So you ask yourself: What magazines do the majority of teachers read?
What TV programs do teachers watch? Do teachers listen to much radio?
At what times of the day? Say, now your research turns up two magazines that teachers read.
And it also shows that the majority of teachers – say ages twenty to thirty – read the magazine about classroom activities.
While most teachers older than that read the other magazine, the one about, oh, let’s say-‘Educational Psychology’.
You think your product will appeal most to teachers aged twenty to thirty,
so you decide to put your advertisement in their favor magazine, the one about classroom activities.
You don’t waste money advertising in the ‘Educational Psychology’ magazine, you know the one that the younger teachers generally don’t read.
And since you’re reaching the majority of the teachers in your target age group, you’re probably spending your money well, which bring us to the third M — Money.
You have an advertising budget to spend, but how do you to spend it wisely. Again, research is the key.
Good research gives you facts, facts that can help you decide, well, as we already mentioned, decide the right market to target, and the best media to use.
But also: When to advertise? or…or how to get the best rates?
Like, may be you’re advertising Sport equipment, and you have been spending most of your budget during the holiday season when people buy gifts for each other.
Now, in theory, that would seem a great time to advertise, but may be a research shows you’re wrong,
that the customers who buy sports equipment tend not to give it as a holiday gift, but want to use it themselves.
In that case, advertising during a different season of the year might give you better results.
And, um, may be it even lower, non-holiday rates, so you actually save money.
But you need to get the facts; facts that come from good research to be certain and know for sure that you’re getting your money’s worth.
OK, finally, there is your message: What you want to say about your product? Why buying it will make the customer’s life easier, or safer or better somehow.
Whatever the message is, make sure you get it right.
Let me give you an example of not getting it right, Ha…ha…ha… you are going to love this one:
There was this Soup Shop, the soup was really tasty, but there weren’t a lot of customers.
The owner thought that may be if they give something away for free with each purchase, then more people would come buy soup.
So they got some cheap socks, and they advertise to give a pair away with each bowl of soup.
But, then even fewer people came to the restaurant.
Well, you can imagine why. People started to associate the soup with feet; they began to imagine the soup smelled like feet.
The advertising massage, soup means free socks, was a bad choice; it was a waste of money. And worse, it caused the loss of customers.
Now, I want everyone to get into small groups and come up with some examples, not of good advertising messages, but of truly disastrous ones.
Think of real examples and make them up, and talk about the reasons those messages are unsuccessful. And then we’ll get back together and share.